Optimization of flexo process parameters to reduce the overall manufacturing cost


  • Akshay V Joshi Department of Printing Engineering, P. V. G’s College of Engineering & Technology and G. K. Pate (Wani) Institute of Management, Pune, India https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8733-1747




Flexography, Polyethylene, Design of Experiments, Analysis of Variance, Regression


The flexo process parameters play an important role in ink transfer and will lead to wastage of inks, substrate, solvents and printed stocks if not monitored and controlled. The work focuses on optimizing the flexo process parameters for 40 microns 3-layer polyethylene (PE) film with Blue Nitrocellulose (NC) ink to reduce overall manufacturing cost while maintaining the print quality for diaper application. An experimental design was conducted for the response Ink GSM (grams per square meter), ?E and Print Mottle with factors such as ink viscosity, anilox volume, plate dot shape and substrate opacity. The data was analyzed through Main Effect, Interaction Plot and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The regression models were developed for the response to validate the predictive ability of model. The process optimization resulted in reduction of Ink GSM, ?E and Print Mottle by 18%, 52% and 1% respectively. The ink consumption reduced by 18.26% with minimized print defects, thereby reducing the overall manufacturing cost.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Akshay V Joshi, Department of Printing Engineering, P. V. G’s College of Engineering & Technology and G. K. Pate (Wani) Institute of Management, Pune, India

Akshay V. Joshi received Bachelor’s and Masters Degree in Printing Engineering from University of Pune, India. He was awarded Ph.D. (Engineering) from Jadavpur University, Kolkata in 2015. Dr. Akshay Joshi is working as Assistant Professor, Printing Engineering Department at P. V. G’s College of Engineering & Technology and G. K. Pate (Wani) Institute of Management, Pune, India since 1996. He is Coordinator, Board of Studies and Member, Research and Recognition Committee for Printing Technology at Savitribai Phule Pune University. His area of research is Gravure, Flexo and Flexible Packaging. Dr. Akshay Joshi has published several papers in Journals and guided candidates for Master Program in Printing Engineering and evaluated Ph.D. candidates. He is been internationally qualified as G7 Expert by Idealliance USA and implemented first G7 calibration for Gravure and Flexography printing processes in India. He is a Life Member of Indian Society for Technical Education.


Mordor Intelligence Report (2020). Flexible Plastic Packaging Market by Type (Pouches, Rollstocks, Bags, Wraps), Material (Plastic & Aluminum Foil), Application (Food, Beverage, Pharma & Healthcare, Personal care & Cosmetics), Technology, and Region - Global Forecast to 2025 [online]. Available from: https://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/flexible-packaging-market-1271.html. [Accessed 20 May 2021].

Indian Diaper Market (2016). India Diaper Market Overview, 2016 - Research and Markets [online]. Available from: http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20161128005918/en/India-Diaper-Market-Overview-2016---Research. [Accessed 20 May 2021].

Kipphan, H. (2001). Handbook of Print Media. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin.

Rogers A. (2011). Choosing the right anilox-roll engraving for the application [online]. Available from: http://www.harperimage.com/media/downloads/Choosing%20the%20right%20engraving_Converting%20Q%204thQrtr2011.pdf. [Accessed 20 May 2021].

Ardent D. (2006). Ink Mileage: Measure & Manage [online]. Available from: http://www.pffc-online.com/process-management/5017-paper-ink-mileage-measure. [Accessed 20 May 2021].

Rastetter J., & Bingham J. (2016). Lower Your Anilox Line Screen and Cell Volume for Better Performance FlexoGlobal [online]. Available from: http://www.flexoglobal.com/blog/2016/08/01/pamarco-lower-anilox-line-screen-cell-volume/. [Accessed 20 May 2021].

Teufler S. (2010). Weighing Your Coating Options [online]. Available from: http://www.harperimage.com/media/downloads/Weighing%20Your%20Coating%20Options%20FLEXO%20Feb%202010.pdf. [Accessed 22 May 2021].

Teufler S. (2015). Anilox Rollers - Choosing the Right Lineature [online]. Available from: http://www.harperimage.com/media/downloads/Anilox%20Rollers_Choosing%20The%20Right%20Lineature_Flexible%20Packaging%20Issue%201.pdf. [Accessed 22 May 2021].

Hogan P. (2018). Aniloxes - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow [online]. Available from: http://www.harperimage.com/media/downloads/Aniloxes_Yesterday%20Today%20and%20Tomorrow_%20L&NW%20NovDec%202018.pdf. [Accessed 22 May 2021].

Harper C. (2005). Do you know what ink film thickness is transferred [online]. Available from: http://www.harperimage.com/media/downloads/Harper_FGA_1_2005.pdf. [Accessed 22 May 2021].

Green C. (2013). Understanding Common Flexo Print Defects - Part 2 FlexoGlobal [online]. Available from: http://www.flexoglobal.com/blog/tag/anilox/page/4/. [Accessed 22 May 2021].

Poulson B. & Hudson K. (2010). Correlating Ink Labs Drawdown to Press [online]. Available from: http://www.harperimage.com/media/downloads/Radtech%20Report%20Sep-Oct%202010.pdf. [Accessed 24 May 2021].

Harnandez R. (2019). Releasing the Anilox’s Power [online]. Available from: http://www.harperimage.com/media/downloads/Releasing%20Anilox%20Power_FLEXO%20Jan%202019.pdf. [Accessed 24 May 2021].

Olson, R., Yang, L. Stam J. V., & Lesrelius, M. (2006). Effects of ink setting flexographic printing: Coating polarity and dot gain. Nordic Pulp and Paper Research Journal, 21(5), 569–574.

Gencoglu, E. N. (2012). Influence of Ink Viscosity on Dot Gain and Print Density in Flexography. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 24(5), 1999–2002.

Theopold, A., Neumann, J., Massfelder, D., & Dörsam, E. (2012). Effects of Solvents on Flexographic Plates. Advances in Printing and Media Technology, 39, 159–168.

Simseker, O. (2011). Investigation of Different Solvents in Flexographic Printing Ink’s Effects to Print Quality on Coated and Uncoated Paper. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 23(7), 2903–2906.

Hizir, F.E., & Hardt, D.E. (2014). Effect of Substrate Contact Angle on Ink Transfer in Flexographic Printing [online]. Available from: http://www.comsol.co.in/paper/download/194575/hizir_paper.pdf. [Accessed 26 May 2021].

Izdebska, J., Podsiadlo, H., & Hari, L. (2012). Influence of Surface Free Energy of Biodegradable Films on Optical Density of Ink Coated Fields of Prints. Advances in Printing and Media Technology, 39, 245–252.

Rong, X., & Keif, M. (2007). A Study of PLA Printability with Flexography. The Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, 3, 605–613.

Mesic, B., Lestelius, M., & Engstrom, G. (2006). Influence of Corona Treatment Decay on Print Quality in Water-borne Flexographic Printing of Low-density Polyethylene-coated Paperboard. Packaging Technology and Science, 19(2), 61–70.

Valdec, D., Zjaki?, I., & Milkovi?, M. (2013). The Influence of Variable Parameters of Flexographic Printing on Dot Geometry of Pre-printed Printing Substrate. Tehni?ki vjesnik, 20(4), 659–667.

Claypole, T.C., Jewell, E.H., & Bould, D.C. (2012). Effects of Flexographic Press Parameters on the Reproduction of Colour Images. Advances in Printing and Media Technology, 39, 187–194.

Gilbert, D.E., & Lee, F. (2008). Flexographic Plate Technology: Conventional Solvent Plates Versus Digital Solvent Plates. Journal of Industrial Technology, 24(3), 1–7.

Bould, D.C., Claypole, T.C., & Bohan, M.F.J. (2004). An Investigation into Plate Deformation in Flexographic Printing. Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 218(11), 1499–1511.

Ebnesajjad, S., & Landrock, A. (2015). Surface Tension and Its Measurement. In: S. Ebnesajjad, 3rd ed. Adhesives Technology Handbook. William Andrew, Elsevier Inc, 19–29.



DOI: 10.11121/ijocta.2022.1137
Published: 2022-01-02

How to Cite

Joshi, A. V. (2022). Optimization of flexo process parameters to reduce the overall manufacturing cost. An International Journal of Optimization and Control: Theories & Applications (IJOCTA), 12(1), 66–78. https://doi.org/10.11121/ijocta.2022.1137



Research Articles